The term Darjeeling comes from the Tibetan words Dorje, which means thunder rod of the Hindu lord Indra, and ling, means ‘’the place” or “land’’. Darjeeling has a temperate climate comprising wet summers because of those monsoon rains. The mean maximum temperature gets around 14.9 °C (58.8 °F) while the mean minimum temperature closes to 8.9 °C (48.0 °F), monthly mean varies from 6-18 °C or 43- 64 °F. The lowest temperature calculated was −5 °C alias 23 °F since 11 February 1905. Average annual rainfall of 309.2 cm with rains of not less than 126 days in a year. Highest rainfall occuring in month of July consists of heavy, concentrated rainfalls which is then infuriated by deforestation and unorganised planning which causes ample amount of landslides, creating huge loss of life and property. Hardly the town receives snow at least once during two winter months of December and January.
Appropriately known for exquisite plantations, modernized techniques, Darjeeling teas are those teas grown particularly in the Darjeeling district of West Bengal traditionally made from those small-leaved Chinese variation of Camellia sinensis var. sinensis, rather than the large-leaved Assam plant (assamica, that is sinensis var. assamica). Ethnically, Darjeeling tea were made as black tea; but now Darjeeling oolong and Green teas are more frequently produced, easier to be traced. Now growing number of Darjeeling tea estates produces white teas So there are varieties of Darjeeling teas which includes: Black Tea, Oolong tea ,Green teas and also White Teas.. When properly infused, it produces a thin-layered, light-textured blended with the floral scent. The tastes includes a touch of astringent characteristics and sweet odor spiciness also described as “muscatel” in the technical term.
Ethnically, Darjeeling teas are categorized as one form of black tea. But, the modern Darjeeling trend employs a hard wither 35–40% remaining leaf weight after withering), which in turn results in an incomplete oxidation for many of the best teas of this range, which technically makes them a type of oolong. Most of the Darjeeling teas appear to be a mixture of teas which gets oxidized to levels of black, oolong and green
Now lets take a detail into the varieties of Tea:
Darjeeling White tea has a softer aroma and infuses into a light golden colour with a hint of sweetness. These white tea leaves are very silky and light; therefore, it is advised to use more tea leaves when brewing different from other teas. Grown in the rainy cold climate of Darjeeling under altitudes near about 2000 metres, these Darjeeling tea leaves are hand-picked and dried in the sun,
Darjeeling Oolong teas lighter than the normal Darjeeling black teas during the first flush, as it gets semioxidized. In the second flush,. Darjeeling oolong is much more accepted internationally. Consists of dark orange liquid with distinctive sweetness. Lower-altitude gardens can produce teas of similar appearance, but the flavour differs greatly from the main characteristics of oolong tea. Made from the finely plucked leaves, consisting usually of two leaves with a bud,the Darjeeling Oolong teas sometimes gets withered naturally in sun and air. The withered leaves are then hand-rolled and pan-fired under certain temperatures. Withered can be done in machine: trench, lightly rolled in the rolling machine and fired at 220 °C in a standard dryer . All Darjeeling gardens are not of the qualitative standard to produce the Darjeeling Oolong; only those which have an altitudes of 3000 ft above sea level and average temperatures remaining between 5 and 20 °C throughout the season are qualified to produce the standardized Darjeeling Oolong teas..
Darjeeling Organic Green Tea is the green tea variety which is produced in several estates in Darjeeling. The Green tea doesn’t gets fermented, but is steamed to prevent oxidation starting, which retains most polyphenols. Consisting of more than 60% more antioxidant polyphenols than black tea, the former tastes less bitter. Polyphenols protects the body from free radicals, molecules, which occur in the natural surroundings and are genetically produced by the body which can cause damage to cells.